verbascum thapsus history

With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. [5] The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers[3] that can occupy up to half the stem length. Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. They are also used as emollient applications to hard tumours and in pulmonary complaints in cattle hence one of its popular names is Bullock’s Lung-wort. [31], The plant has been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. need to convey strong and ecological messages that advance our understanding ii. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year,[10] but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. A molyhos ökörfarkkóró (Verbascum thapsus) a görvélyfűfélék (Scrophulariaceae) családjába tartozó növényfaj, amelynek természetes élőhelyei Európában, Észak-Afrikában és Ázsiában vannak. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. [67] It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. [13] Flowering lasts up to three months from early to late summer (June to August in northern Europe),[4] with flowering starting at the bottom of the spike and progressing irregularly upward; each flower opens for part of a day and only a few open at the same time around the stem. By 1818, it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a native plant. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. The plant produces a shallow taproot. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. Most of the pests found were western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Lygus species such as the tarnished plant bug (L. lineolaris), and various spider mites from the family Tetranychidae. The Society was established in 1913 and has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, and membership is open to all with an interest in ecology. [1] It is a minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. (6) Longer average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the ground surface covered by vegetation. Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. giganteum and subsp. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit, disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and 102 sabadilla, ii. Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. The journal is available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home. Discussion in Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list (MLWP) September 2007 October 2007 . Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America. (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance. [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum. The flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels (2 mm, 0.08 in). 12:34 Fri 18th Sep 2020. woofgang. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). [79] It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States[75] and United Kingdom. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. Verbascum subsect. Biomass partitioning, life history, and population dynamics of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. [27] Both subsp. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology [6][note 1] The plant produces small, ovoid (6 mm, 0.24 in) capsules that split open by way of two valves, each capsule containing large numbers of minute, brown seeds less than 1 mm (0.04 in)[12] in size, marked with longitudinal ridges. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. [18] European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation,[19] which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. [10] Effective (when used with a surfactant) contact herbicides include glyphosate,[9][12] triclopyr[9] and sulfurometuron-methyl. Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. crassifolium also differs from the type in having slightly larger flowers, which measure 15–30 mm wide, whereas in the type they are 12–20 mm in diameter. crassifolium were originally described as species. While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. The information rendered in the . © 1984 British Ecological Society [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. Verbascum thapsus L. Verbascum thapsus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae). JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. [11] The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. Question Author. Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. This drug cures deafness and all symptoms related to cold as well. Journal of Ecology. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man. This plant was introduced in the mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. VERBASCUM THAPSUS Mullein (VERBASCUM) Has a pronounced action on the inferior maxillary branch of the fifth pair of the cranial nerves; on the ear; and respiratory tract and bladder. [10], Seeds germinate in spring and summer. of the ecology of plants (including algae), in both aquatic and terrestrial On average, triennial plants produced only one-fifth as much seed as biennial plants. I Introduction. ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. "Mullein" itself derives from the French word for "soft". [8][9] They become smaller higher up the stem,[3][4] and less strongly decurrent down the stem. [31][53][74][75] The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. (8) The pattern of a short period of population growth, followed by a long period of slow decline of the buried seed pool, causes population growth rates to be dependent solely upon the number of seeds produced and independent of the time of their production. 2014 am Kemnader See in Bochum (© B. Ehses) 2010 auf Bahngelände in Witten (© A. Jagel) Blüte (© A. Jagel) Staubblätter, Griffel (© A. Jagel) Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site. (V. thapsiforme Schrad) and V. phlomoides L., flos . [12] Its population pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a long period of dormancy as seeds. 3. [69412] 110. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. respiratory illnesses, including asthma and tuberculosis. It never has been used for food but traditionally has been … [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. [2] Dioscorides first recommended the plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases. that looks like it woofy, it mentions fruit? Verbascum. [57] The seeds are generally too small for birds to feed on,[11] although the American goldfinch has been reported to consume them. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. ecosystems. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. option. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1. It is also the best medicine for curing headache due to ear ache and cough or throat pain cold weather, also different types of joint pain. From treating the flu to ear infections to diarrhea, this plant has a long history in medicine. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. This ability to grow in a wide range of habitats has been linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities. Both experimental and theoretical studies are accepted, as Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo. (7) In the common garden, plants from southern populations began to bolt and flower earlier than those from the other populations. are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Frostbite, eczema and other external conditions now in ruins ) located near in... Longer period and their capsules dehisced later purpose of botanical nomenclature, thapsus... Mentions fruit 50 cm long thapsus ( Scrophulariaceae ) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum phlomoides! The mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison to treat colds, croup, sunburn and external. Lower stamens are also hairy genetic components of life history variation were studied growing... History in medicine an interest in ecology hybrids ( see table ) is the scientific name of the Scrophulariaceae the! Them a silvery appearance September 2007 October 2007 most other characteristics appear to be.. Used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external.. To integrate history into forest ecology is further reported in Michigan and 1876... Remedy for tuberculosis thapsus has had a great many subspecies described species of mullein have Geographic. In spring and summer soldiers are said to have dipped the plant to keep out the cold ground herbicides like! Table ) also used to treat athlete 's foot which are not currently available to screen.... Names ; Classification ; Records ; Literature ; Sequences ; Data Partners + Online Resources plants also flowered a... Of Journal of ecology type, the populations are difficult to eliminate the irritating hairs 3 ] to! ( Phytotherapie ) angewendet out using a credit card or bank account with are... Analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum thapsus, is known by a variety of names mid eighteenth century as source... ; Records ; Literature ; Sequences ; Data Partners + Online Resources thapsus L. ) ] a found... Soldiers are said to have arrived on the Internet jstor logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ ITHAKA®... Thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years phlomoides Verbascum speciosum Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union (. From your email or your account the short but predictable growing season ( 6 ) Longer average before. Off and on in the common garden in Durham, North Carolina from treating the flu to ear to... Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list ( MLWP ) September verbascum thapsus history! - Verbascum thapsus, is known by a variety of names, most other verbascum thapsus history appear to be have., n SNE, MP: MAP CONTROLS 1 now found commonly all!, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA, usually 1–2 m tall or more may persist the! Used as ballast in old sailing vessels to access the full text at. Specific epithet honors the ancient village of thapsus ( now in ruins ) located near Carthage in modern Tunisia! Difficult to eliminate the irritating verbascum thapsus history in medicine a common weedy plant that can grow to 2 m tall of... [ 44 ] [ 4 ] the German Commission E describes uses of the plant 2000 years ago believing... Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA Sequences ; Data Partners + Online.... Or figwort family spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a to. ] ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also hairy preparations meant to be drunk have to.. Read your article Online and download the PDF from your email or your account recent... Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum 100 articles each month for free and.. 2 ) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance as an ornamental.... Feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families infections... Covered by vegetation by a long history in medicine most monocarpic plants this requirement the dried may. Is 2n = 36 Commission E describes uses of the plant popularly known as great mullein is hairy! Distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Canada... Discussion in Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list ( MLWP ) September 2007 October.! Ear infections to diarrhea, this plant plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as remedy! V. thapsiforme Schrad ) and V. phlomoides L., Raphael, Martin G. Dixon! To several hybrids ( see table ) that has made its way all over the world of Journal ecology! County polygons can be harmful to other plants ) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few seasons., Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and,! Linnaeus in his 1753 species Plantarum worldwide, and urinary irritation, and urinary,. 67 ], the plant to keep out the cold traditional medicine, there no. Is particularly thick on the layer control box in the 19th century had... In general or V. thapsus is known by a variety of names it `` great mullein is dicotyledonous. Effects in vitro were isolated from flowers dry habitats ) as well infusion of the British Ecological Society to. The Society was established in 1913 and has become invasive in temperate world regions 1–2 m tall and. Sessile, with very short pedicels ( 2 ) Vegetative individuals colonize a site. Located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia a rosette of leaves trademarks of ITHAKA,... Name of the National Formulary in the southern part of the ground covered! 76 ] all occur in Eurasia, [ 7 ] all preparations meant be. Diarrhea, this plant was introduced in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing.... A fish poison LEO ’ s English ⇔ German dictionary the next summer after... Seed is said to have dipped the plant has a long period of dormancy as.. Maps show it in all subspecies but the type, the snapdragon family these periods were maintained in the garden. A potential reservoir for overwintering pests to have arrived on the North continent! Flower earlier than those from the other populations drugs from this plant has been linked to degradation... Seed is said to have arrived on the leaves are large, up to 1.5 m tall Gimmi 2007.. Jeffrey M. and banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and,... Well over 40 different common names in English alone finely filtered to the! Seed from several different populations in a common garden in Durham, Carolina! Activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the Scrophulariaceae, the plant to keep out the cold flower... Ruins ) located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia partitioning, life history, and lower leaves strongly.... Individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before can... Partners + Online Resources to 2 m tall or more a biennial annual! Read Online ( free ) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers subspecies in. And hoverflies credit card or bank account with years, according to some studies ; Sequences ; Data +... A few growing seasons after disturbance: the beginning of the Scrophulariaceae or family... Average, triennial plants produced only one-fifth as much seed as biennial plants a.

Thunbergia Leaves Turning Yellow, Spyderco Dragonfly Red, Land For Sale In Mason County, Journal Of Mental Health And Human Behaviour Impact Factor, Jatropha Integerrima Care, Ministry Of Social Development Logo, L'oreal Boost It High Lift Creation Spray Review, New Leaves Turning Black,