space shuttle length meters

[42], The partial reusability of the Space Shuttle was one of the primary design requirements during its initial development. [35][36] By T+0.23 seconds, the SRBs built up enough thrust for liftoff to commence, and reached maximum chamber pressure by T+0.6 seconds. [40]:71 Repeated warnings from design engineers voicing concerns about the lack of evidence of the O-rings' safety when the temperature was below 53 °F (12 °C) had been ignored by NASA managers. The mid-deck contained a port-side hatch that crew used for entry and exit while on Earth. These ranged from 7.6 meters (Fig. [13]:I–377–391[24] The Crew Transport Vehicle (CTV) was a modified airport jet bridge that was used to assist astronauts to egress from the orbiter after landing, where they would undergo their post-mission medical checkups. and . [17]:422, For the first two missions, STS-1 and STS-2, the ET was covered in 270 kg (595 lb) of white fire-retardant latex paint to provide protection against damage from ultraviolet radiation. On July 4, 1982, STS-4, flown by Ken Mattingly and Henry Hartsfield, landed on a concrete runway at Edwards AFB. Five complete Space Shuttle orbiter vehicles were built and flown on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. [13]:II–186, Beginning at T−6.6 seconds, the main engines were ignited sequentially at 120-millisecond intervals. the payload bay doors, hinges and tiedown fittings, the forward [46][48]:195–203, The Space Shuttle retirement was announced in January 2004. [17]:395, The Space Shuttle external tank (ET) carried the propellant for the Space Shuttle Main Engines, and connected the orbiter vehicle with the solid rocket boosters. [6]:178–179[15], The Space Shuttle was the first operational orbital spacecraft designed for reuse. All three RS-25 engines were required to reach 90% rated thrust by T−3 seconds, otherwise the GPCs would initiate an RSLS abort. Dismukes | Responsible NASA Official: John Ira Petty | Updated: 06/25/2003Web Accessibility and Policy Notices. [13]:III–8 LOX and LH2 were loaded into the external tank via umbilicals that attached to the orbiter vehicle, which began at T−5 hours 35 minutes. flight deck. [17]:423–424, The Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) provided 71.4% of the Space Shuttle's thrust during liftoff and ascent, and were the largest solid-propellant motors ever flown. The The orbiter had three inertial measuring units (IMU) that it used for guidance and navigation during all phases of flight. In January 1971, NASA and Air Force leadership decided that a reusable delta-wing orbiter mounted on an expendable propellant tank would be the optimal design for the Space Shuttle. At T−16 seconds, the GPCs armed the SRBs, the sound suppression system (SPS) began to drench the MLP and SRB trenches with 1,100,000 L (300,000 U.S. gal) of water to protect the orbiter vehicle from damage by acoustical energy and rocket exhaust reflected from the flame trench and MLP during lift-off. An equipment bay was below the mid-deck, which stored environmental control and waste management systems. The Space Shuttle flew many remarkable missions during its 30-year career, delivering satellites into orbit, supporting fundamental scientific research and building the International Space Station (ISS).Thirty-seven of its missions were extended at least 24 hours, their homecoming set back by weather, changed landing sites or the need to gather additional data from their payloads. Additionally, the Air Force required a larger payload capacity than Faget's design allowed. [17]:430 Once they were returned to Cape Canaveral, they were cleaned and disassembled. Its hull, measuring 16.3 meters in length, 19.7 meters wide and 7.5 meters in height, was constructed of conventional composite construction, with a ceramic and composite outer skin. In April 1979, Enterprise was taken to the KSC, where it was attached to an external tank and solid rocket boosters, and moved to LC-39. The crawler-transporters carried the MLP and the Space Shuttle from the VAB to the launch site. On October 18, 1995, ESA council slashed the length of the Columbus module to 6.7 meters, or half of its original size. and provides support for the nose section, the nose gear and the The Spacelab module contained two 2.7 m (9 ft) segments that were mounted in the aft end of the payload bay to maintain the center of gravity during flight. Once installed at the launch pad, the Space Shuttle was used to verify the proper positioning of launch complex hardware. The orbiter vehicle was prepared at the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and transferred to the VAB, where a crane was used to rotate it to the vertical orientation and mate it to the external tank. The LOX tank was housed in the nose of the ET, and was 15 m (49.3 ft) tall. The Chaffee was born out of necessity when it was discovered that the physical studio model of the original Type 18 shuttlepod had been stolen. During the 1950s, the United States Air Force proposed using a reusable piloted glider to perform military operations such as reconnaissance, satellite attack, and air-to-ground weapons employment. The orbiter vehicle's aft RCS jets were disabled as it descended and its ailerons, elevators, and rudder became effective in the lower atmosphere. The rising costs of development and the prioritization of Project Gemini led to the cancellation of the Dyna-Soar program in December 1963. That August, NASA awarded the contract to build the orbiter to North American Rockwell, the solid-rocket booster contract to Morton Thiokol, and the external tank contract to Martin Marietta. [49][50] To ensure the ISS was properly assembled, the contributing partners determined the need for 16 remaining assembly missions in March 2006. [13]:III–12 The orbiter's maximum glide ratio/lift-to-drag ratio varied considerably with speed, ranging from 1.3 at hypersonic speeds to 4.9 at subsonic speeds. [13]:III–13, In addition to the pre-planned landing airfields, there were 85 agreed-upon emergency landing sites to be used in different abort scenarios, with 58 located in other countries. NASA's pricing, which was below cost, was lower than expendable launch vehicles; the intention was that the high volume of Space Shuttle missions would compensate for early financial losses. The mission cycle of the Shuttle is quite complex. Problem 2 - Measure the height in meters between the tip of the red shuttle fuel … The runway is located 3.2 km (2 miles) northwest of the Vehicle Assembly Building and is 4,572 meters (15,000ft) long and 91.4 meters (300ft) wide - about as wide as the length of a football field. The DPS consisted of five general purpose computers (GPC), two magnetic tape mass memory units (MMUs), and the associated sensors to monitors the Space Shuttle components. This area houses the pressurized crew module The Type 3 Shuttle would be a common sight within Federation space until Runabouts became more common place in the 2360s. living quarters and experiment operator's station are located in Approximately 20−30 seconds into ascent and an altitude of 2,700 meters (9,000 ft), the RS-25 engines were throttled down to 65−72% to reduce the maximum aerodynamic forces at Max Q. and . While the Space Shuttle was under detailed development and fabrication, we at the ... assembled in space. [38], The Space Shuttle flew from April 12, 1981[13]:III–24 until July 21, 2011. Enterprise was designed as a test vehicle, and did not include engines or heat shielding. Further research determined that the foam itself was sufficiently protected, and the ET was no longer covered in latex paint beginning on STS-3. NASA's only full-length shuttle trainer, construction of the FFT began in 1974 at Johnson Space Center in Houston. It can be located in one of several places: inside the orbiter During the two-day mission, Young and Crippen tested equipment on board the shuttle, and found several of the ceramic tiles had fallen off the top side of the Columbia. It was 18 m (60 ft) long and 4.6 m (15 ft) wide, and could accommodate cylindrical payloads up to 4.6 m (15 ft) in diameter. Each OMS engine produced 27,080 N (6,087 lbf) of thrust, and the entire system could provide 305 m/s (1,000 ft/s) of velocity change. three rescue seats in place of the modular stowage and sleeping In contrast with previous US spacecraft, which had used ablative heat shields, the reusability of the orbiter required a multi-use heat shield. The initial design of the reusable Space Shuttle envisioned an increasingly cheap launch platform to deploy commercial and government satellites. "Space Shuttle." Payloads were secured in the payload bay to the attachment points on the longerons. The single internal cabin offered 108 cubic meters of space, including numerous lockers and storage space for … Orbiter landings at the Kennedy SpaceCenter are made on one of the largest runways in the world. Technical Specifications for Type-12 shuttles: classification: Personal Shuttle. [17]:425–429, The rocket motors were each filled with a total 500,000 kg (1,106,640 lb) of solid rocket propellant, and joined together in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at KSC. In 1998, Atlantis was upgraded with the Multifunction Electronic Display System (MEDS), which was a glass cockpit upgrade to the flight instruments that replaced the eight MCDS display units with 11 multifunction colored digital screens. In addition The engines were removed to be used on the Space Launch System, and spare RS-25 nozzles were attached for display purposes.[13]:III-445. [8]:124, The SRBs underwent several redesigns throughout the program's lifetime. From the fifth flight, STS-5, until the loss of Challenger, the crew wore one-piece light blue nomex flight suits and partial-pressure helmets. Studio model. As humanity's first reusable spacecraft, the space shuttle pushed the bounds of discovery ever farther, requiring not only advanced technologies but the tremendous effort of a vast workforce. [17]:408–411, The Space Shuttle crew varied per mission. [17]:427 The GPCs could dynamically control the throttle of the RS-25 engines based upon the performance of the SRBs. The bay, 18.3 m long and 4.6 m wide (60 ft by 15 ft), has payload attachment points along its full length, and is adaptable enough to accommodate as many as five unmanned spacecraft of various sizes and shapes in one mission. Shuttle Court Width. In the event of unfavorable landing conditions, the Shuttle could delay its landing or land at an alternate location. After wheels stop, the crew deactivated the flight components and prepared to exit. [13]:III–8–9 Additionally, the shape of the SRB propellant was designed to cause thrust to decrease at the time of Max Q. [8]:132–133 Once the entire stack was assembled, the MLP was carried for 5.6 km (3.5 mi) to Launch Complex 39 by one of the crawler-transporters. [13]:III–13, The approach and landing phase began when the orbiter vehicle was at an altitude of 3,000 m (10,000 ft) and traveling at 150 m/s (300 kn). Ground control engineers had made three separate requests for high-resolution images taken by the Department of Defense that would have provided an understanding of the extent of the damage, while NASA's chief TPS engineer requested that astronauts on board Columbia be allowed to leave the vehicle to inspect the damage. Both tanks were slowly filled up until the launch as the oxygen and hydrogen evaporated. Early in the Space Shuttle program, NASA flew with payload specialists, who were typically systems specialists who worked for the company paying for the payload's deployment or operations. The 65.8-cubic-meter arm remotely controlled from the flight deck of the orbiter. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft: Length: 231 feet, 4 inches (70.5 meters) Wingspan: 195 feet 8 inches (59.7 meters) Height: 63 feet 5 inches (19.3 meters) Empty weight: 318,000 pounds (144,200 kg) Shuttle replica: Length: 122 feet (37.2 meters) Wingspan: 78 feet (23.7 meters) Height: 57 feet (17.3 meters) Weight: 171,000 pounds (77,500 kilograms) reusable . Accounting for the entire Space Shuttle program budget, the per-launch cost was $1.642 billion (in 2012). Facts and General Characteristics of Space Shuttle Atlantis: Name: Named after a two-masted sailing ship that operated from 1930 to 1966 for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. [37][13]:II–186 At T−0, the JSC Mission Control Center assumed control of the flight from the LCC. While the Space Shuttle was under detailed development and fabrication, we at the ... assembled in space. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. * The space shuttle was big: when sitting on the launch pad, the complete shuttle assembly was 56.1 meters (184 feet 2 inches) tall and weighed about 2.04 million kilograms (4.4 million pounds). The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27,5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. three floodlights are located along each side of the payload bay. The Shuttle Craft is officially commission. The ship holds a crew complement of six, … to forming the payload bay of the orbiter, the midfuselage supports [6]:167 NASA and the Air Force elected to use solid-propellant boosters because of the lower costs and the ease of refurbishing them for reuse after they landed in the ocean. Length: Shuttle - 56.14 meters / Orbiter - 37.23 meters Height: Orbiter on Runway - 17.27 meters Weight: At liftoff - 2,041,166 kilograms / At landing - 104,326 kilograms Max. For the space shuttles in general, see. the four aft radiator panels radiate from the upper side only. The Space Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds.[5]. Enterprise underwent shake tests in the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test, where it was attached to an external tank and solid rocket boosters, and underwent vibrations to simulate the stresses of launch. [13]:II-86 To limit the fuel consumption while the orbiter was docked at the ISS, the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) was developed to convert and transfer station power to the orbiter. The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.Its official program name was Space Transportation System (STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft where it was the only item funded for development. [17]:370–371, The flight deck was the top level of the crew compartment, and contained the flight controls for the orbiter. It has 305 meters (1000ft) of pavedoverruns at each end and the paving thickness is 40.6cm (15ninches) at thecenter. At an altitude of 46 km (150,000 ft), the orbiter vehicle opened its speed brake on the vertical stabilizer. The SkyFighter is the backbone of the Visitor attack force, and is capable of both atmospheric and space travel. MEDS was flown for the first time in May 2000 on STS-98, and the other orbiter vehicles were upgraded to it. This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. [13]:III–109–112, The fatal Challenger and Columbia disasters demonstrated the safety risks of the Space Shuttle that could result in the loss of the crew. The primary alternate was Edwards AFB, which was used for 54 landings. your answer into the length of the real Space Shuttle orbiter to determine your glider’s scale. The shuttle payload bay’s length remains a mystery. consists of the left and right orbital maneuvering systems, space The Space Shuttle travels toward Mirwith a force that is equal and opposite to the Reaction Control System firings (Newton’s Third Law). In January 1972, President Richard Nixon approved the Shuttle, and NASA decided on its final design in March. Six pressure [17]:428 They each provided 12,500 kN (2,800,000 lbf) of thrust, which was later improved to 13,300 kN (3,000,000 lbf) beginning on STS-8. It has 305 meters (1000ft) of paved overruns at each end and the paving thickness is … [17]:372–376, The mid-deck contained the crew equipment storage, sleeping area, galley, medical equipment, and hygiene stations for the crew. The latter had a primary mirror that was ... We provided additional payload bay length and payload capacity (up to 75 feet and 100,000 lb). The orbiter contains two star trackers to align the IMUs while in orbit. As you walk under and around the 137-foot-long (41.8 meter) orbiter, you will notice that the landing wheels are in the down position and that each main wheel tire is just under 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Figure 2: Onlookers view the launch of STS 121. In addition, The crew used modular lockers to store equipment that could be scaled depending on their needs, as well as permanently installed floor compartments. The improvement of expendable launch vehicles and the transition away from commercial payload on the Space Shuttle resulted in expendable launch vehicles becoming the primary deployment option for satellites. From 1991 to 1993, the orbiter vehicles were upgraded to the AP-101S, which improved the memory and processing capabilities, and reduced the volume and weight of the computers by combining the CPU and IOP into a single unit. The orbiter itself is 37.24 m in length, the external tank is 46.9m, and the Solid Rocket Boosters are 45.6m. [28][31], The mission crew and the Launch Control Center (LCC) personnel completed systems checks throughout the countdown. Additionally, each orbiter was originally installed with an internal airlock in the mid-deck. [13]:I-415, The beginning of the development of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine was delayed for nine months while Pratt & Whitney challenged the contract that had been issued to Rocketdyne. The Spacelab equipment was primarily stored in pallets, which provided storage for both experiments as well as computer and power equipment. The SLWT weighed 3,400 kg (7,500 lb) less than the LWT, which allowed the Space Shuttle to deliver heavy elements to ISS's high inclination orbit. The latter had a primary mirror that was ... We provided additional payload bay length and payload capacity (up to 75 feet and 100,000 lb). Each payload The U.S. relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the ISS from the last Shuttle flight until the first Commercial Crew Development launch on November 2020. [17]:425–426 In addition to providing thrust during the first stage of launch, the SRBs provided structural support for the orbiter vehicle and ET, as they were the only system that was connected to the mobile launcher platform (MLP). [14]:277–278 NASA coordinated with the Air Force to use satellites to image the underside of Columbia, and determined there was no damage. The two-level Two built-in holds at T−20 minutes and T−9 minutes provided scheduled breaks to address any issues and additional preparation. Shuttle Court Length. From bottom to top, the image times are 11:29:12.0, 11:29:12.5, and 11:29:13.0. From that position the Space Shuttle waits for clearance from Mission Control to continue. 11) to 20 meters. and maneuvering thrusters are located in the aft fuselage. Scientists conducted a successful test of a German-made prototype of a future European space shuttle on Saturday. * The space shuttle was big: when sitting on the launch pad, the complete shuttle assembly was 56.1 meters (184 feet 2 inches) tall and weighed about 2.04 million kilograms (4.4 million pounds). your answer into the length of the real Space Shuttle orbiter to determine your glider’s scale. [13]:III–264 Most missions involved staying in orbit several days to two weeks, although longer missions were possible with the Extended Duration Orbiter pallet. The mid-deck contained the airlock, which could support two astronauts on an extravehicular activity (EVA), as well as access to pressurized research modules. From that position the Space Shuttle waits for clearance from Mission Control to continue. [40]:148, On February 1, 2003, Columbia disintegrated during re-entry, killing all seven of the STS-107 crew, because of damage to the carbon-carbon leading edge of the wing caused during launch. The orbiter vehicle maneuvered to an upside down, tail first orientation and began a 2-4 minute OMS burn approximately 20 minutes before it reentered the atmosphere. Additionally, as the orbiter vehicle only had UHF radios, international sites with only VHF radios would have been unable to communicate directly with the crew. — Space Shuttle Atlantis is "go" for launch. The other two S band radios were frequency modulation transmitters, and were used to transmit data to NASA. The Space Shuttle stops within 50 meters of Mir, which is approxi-mately one-half the length of a football field. The orbiter's vertical stabilizer was swept backwards at 45°, and contained a rudder that could split to act as a speed brake. 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